Thursday, April 15, 2010

Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Concept - 5

Concept - 4

Concept - 3 - Other explorations

Concept - Stage 2

Concept Generation - Creating Identity for campaign

As this campaign would run nationwide, I needed a symbol that could be commonly understood by and accepted by people across languages, cultures and religions. After exploring several ideas, I came up with this basic concept of a flower and a petal breaking away.

Though its not really up to the mark, I decided to explore this concept.

Getting the hand right....

Should I show the nails to show that the hand is facing away from the viewer.

Should the hand be angled at the wrist? Or would that mean or show something else?
Hand looking more baby-like.
The line coming from the fore-finger extended behind the thumb to show the facing of the hand.

What would be the difference in meanings when hand faces either towards or away from the user? Or would it make so much difference to the effectiveness of the logo?

Redefined Brief

Having studied the topic till this stage, I can say that, the three factors - Prevention, Action and Healing have to be addressed together or in certain combination if we truly desire to see a change. Hence I tried to hypothesize a system and identify the opportunities for Graphic Design opportunities.

Hypothesis –
The Ministry of Women and Child Development, in association with Childline India Foundation and UNICEF, aims to undertake a dedicated national campaign for protecting children against sexual abuse. The campaign would be executed at the state level in each of the states by the State Department of Women and Child Development, Childline Centres, UNICEF office with local governing bodies, juvenile justice board, child welfare committees, social and non-governmental organizations, special children’s institutions, media, etc.
The overall campaign spans three years. The core objects of the campaign are to identify inadequacies in laws related to penalizing sexual offences against children, to make the Indian judiciary child-friendly and to propose a draft for ‘Child Sexual Abuse (Prevention) Act of India’. The campaign involves collaboration and co-management, where the primary responsibility is of the government, but support is elicited from and provided by non governmental organizations. The plan also focuses on public awareness and participation and a close collaboration with and among stakeholders.

The campaign has a two-fold agenda: (1)Effective implementation of existing laws, policies
(2)Demanding relevant amendments to legal provisions.
Communication Need – Under the first aim i.e. effective implementation of existing laws and policies, there is a communication need for : (i) Training of trainers : NGO volunteers, DWCD officials, (ii) Sensitizing stakeholders : CWC and JJB officials, elected representatives and government officials at the city level, NGOs, Child Institutions. (iii) Public awareness : publicizing the campaign, and sensitizing people on a mass scale (iv) Public participation workshops (v) Awareness and sensitization of Parents and children.

Target Audience.
As the campaign deals with social change associated with perception and system level change in approach to issue of CSA, to start with I have chosen middle and higher income group people as
my target audience, they being literate, economically privileged and having better means of accessibility to support systems.

Scope of Work.
Suggestive identity design for the campaign.
Suggestive media

End Deliverable.
Not defined

IV. Synthesis 2

Child Sexual Abuse can basically be addressed in three different situations: one- where child is under parental care (except children of prostitutes), two- Institutional care (Orphans, Mentally handicapped, etc.), three- Destitute, Street Children, Employed/Confined Children for labour exploitation.
It is, I felt, better to start with where there is 'care' - that is children under parental care. There may be two approaches: one- talking to children directly (requires a very sensitized approach), and two- talking to parents.

Wordplay - educated parents

Adapting this popular Gujarati children's rhyme to convey the message to children - SAFE AND UNSAFE TOUCHES - Identifying special parts of their body and understanding their rights.

IV. Synthesis 1

Victimizing the victim - The Patriachal approach

Will anyone believe me?

Uncle said its a secret!

The definition of Child Sexual Abuse includes the phrase - Sexual activity without the child's "informed" "consent"
The neighbourhood rickshawalla would be handed over to the police.
But Uncle Sudhir................. well he is an old family friend, a thorough gentleman and wellwisher
Our daughter must be making thngs up... God knows where these ideas have started creeping into her head nowadays!

III. Analysis - Visual representation

An effort to model my understanding.

A synchronized approach.

III. Analysis - Legal inadequacies

Enormous complications come into play in India when the truth needs to be told as it is. Due to our innate social hypocrisy, anything that leads to the truth is perceived as a threat by a very large section of the society. Taking a look at serious loopholes in Indian law with regards to sexual offenses against children. (Article 375, 376)
(i) Rape - Penile penetration in a vagina is the only kind which constitutes rape legally. Digital, oral, or object penetration are not considered.
(ii) 'Outraging modesty' - Non penetrative sexual contact with Children - cannot be penalized with the same parameters as applied to adults.
(iii) Sexual assault by a person in position of trust needs to be penalized more severely.
(iv) There is no standardization of process to deal with a child victim in court, which can lead to severe problems to his/her psychology.
(v) Need for fast trials, and a set up for dealing with child protection cases. Cases of sexual offense against child, come up for hearing when child is of a mature/marriageable age.

- Courtesy, Bitter Chocolate.

A lot many factors pointing to the need for a separate law for dealing with Child sexual abuse.

Monday, April 12, 2010

II. Analysis - Psychological and social issues

The issue of Child Sexual abuse is often called ‘difficult’, mainly because of underreporting and social taboo. This owes to the following factors: 90% of cases, perpetrator is known to and is in a position of trust or responsibility with the child i.e. takes advantage of the child’s trust, vulnerability and lack of informed consent.
Children in majority of cases do not disclose incidents of sexual abuse as they are
(i) faced with guilt and shame attached with the secrecy and ‘dirtiness’ of the incident.
(ii) not comfortable with parents on the topic of ‘sex’.
(iii) threatened or coerced by the perpetrator against it.

Parents do not handle disclosure appropriately as they
(i) Do not consult professional counselors thinking that they can make the child put the experience behind it with passage of time
(ii) Do not confront the perpetrator either for the fear of relationship breakdown in cases where relatives or close family friends are involved, or fear from social complexities related to status and/or gender, or fear of legal confrontation or sheer ignorance.

Patriarchal system of family in Indian culture has led to deep seated fear, and many kinds of social and cultural practices around the safety of their girls and their 'virginity'.
It also fails to recognize the vulnerability of boys to child sexual abuse which is equal to that of girls.
Patriarchal system – ‘Masculinity/maleness is a state to be achieved’, ‘Male sexual urge is out of a man’s hand and once aroused he has to do his thing’.
Elders esp. males of family, are to be respected invariably and unconditionally.

A large percentage of child sexual abuse perpetrators are themselves victims of sexual abuse as children i.e. victim becomes ‘perpetuator’.

II. Analysis - India – vulnerability and need for action

India – vulnerability and need for action

Child Sexual Abuse is a globally occurring phenomenon, for which various organizations and nations are taking concrete steps to curb, along with other critical issues of child protection. India however is in a special situation in this regard, owing to the following factors:

1. Nineteen percent of the world's children live in India. India has the largest number of sexually abused children in the world.

2. Sex being a taboo in the Indian culture, discrimination and sexual victimization of women and the social tolerance to the same, has aggravated the problem to a great extent.

3. Due to political instability there is an influx of considerable percentage of refugee children in India.

4. Poverty and migration from rural parts owing to growing employment opportunities in urban areas has created a fertile ground for exploitation of children.

5. There are an increasing number of street children who are in the most vulnerable position for sexual violence.

6. The laws of the nation are inadequate to penalize sexual crimes against children, leading to flourishing of organized sex trade including child sex tourism, child pornography, etc.

7. India is a signatory to the UNCRC (United Nations Child Rights Convention) which makes imperative for the Government to ensure fulfillment of basic rights of children and take effective measures for enforcement of child protection.

I.D Information Collection - Literature Review

1. Bitter Chocolate -Pinki Virani
Kaash! Mujhe kisi ne bataya hota - Kamala Bhasin
Beti Kare Sawaal - Ekalavya Prakashan
Child Sexual Abuse - Gender Resource Centre
My Rights My Responsibilities

Every Right for Every Child
A World Without Tears

I.C Information Collection - Interaction

(i) Sanchetana Community Centre, Bombay Hotel Slum, Friday 26th March 10

(ii) Sanchetana Community Centre, Behrampura Slum, Saturday 27th March 10

While the Bombay Hotel slum had all Muslim population, the Behrampura slum was majority Hindu. I interacted with ladies and young girls who had come in contact with Sanchetana under their Health and Adolescent programmes respectively. It was a great help having a team of dedicated CHWs (Community Health Workers) who communicated in Gujarati with them. I found that the confidence they had in the NGO, and the workshops they had undergone gave them great deal of confidence to speak up.

Sunday, April 11, 2010

I.B Information Collection - Field Visits & Interviews

(i) Mrs. Manuni Upadhyay 11th March ’10
A social worker and head of K.H. Jani Charitable Trust, Ms. Manuni has mainly worked for AIDS awareness among street children.
Salient information :
Sexually active children on streets, their practices, HIV AIDS.
High incidence of pregnancy among girl children on streets.
High influx of trafficked children from Rajasthan.

(ii) SEWA Anganwadi – Baba Lavlavi Slum, Jamalpur 11th March ’10
This SEWA Anganwadi takes care of children up to 5 years of age. The slum population is entirely belonging to Muslim faith. I basically came here to simply observe young kids from urban poor background.

Salient information : About cases of CSA in the locality.

(iii) Ramapir No Tekro 12th March ’10
As urban poor of Ahmedabad was my initial target audience, I visited this permanent settlement near Vadaj called Ramapir No Tekro. It was almost like a little village. narrow streets wound through rows of houses. This was basically an effort to relate to the target audience.

Observation : Children are largely self reliant and not much concern from parents as to where they wander or what they do.
A very profound effect of Bollywood on children. Girls as young 6-8 dress in garments, way too provocative.
Many young and old men hang around, jobless, throughout the day on the low street walls.
This was a bit shocking and amusing - a group of little boys aged between 10-11 playing cricket, actually eve-teased me and my friend (verbally).

(iv) Dr. Girish R. Shah Ramapir No Tekro, 12th March 10
Dr. Girish Shah is an unacknowledged samaritan of the tekro, having dedicated the greater part of his career serving the underprivileged urban poor for their health needs.
Salient information :
Young girls between 15- 18 years of age going for abortion.
High incidence of sexual promiscuity within joint family.
Young girls consenting to sexual activity, owing to such exposure.
Boys susceptible to substance abuse from very young age of 10-12

(v) Padmaben Hedau (Anganwadis), Ms. Shikha (Insurance, SEWA Bank), SEWA, 13th March '10
Observation: Padmaben was quite uncomfortable with my topic, willing to tell me anything apart from what I was trying to know. I did not even mention my topic to Shikhaben, only getting general information about urban poor - their income group and occupations.
Salient information:

In terms of profession, SEWA identifies sectors as Street Vendors (toys, jewellery, food items, etc.), Home based workers (Beedi rollers, Papad/achaar makers, Domestic workers), Service providers (Drivers/ Truck drivers, salesmen), Producers (Into production/manufacturing with own infrastrucure). These are only occupations identified under SEWA insurance. Apart from this there are several daily wage workers, labourers, ragpickers etc.

(vi) Mrs. Mayaben Tripathi, Childline Centre, Ahmedabad, Monday 15th March 10

Mrs. Mayaben Tripathi has been a member of ASAG and is working with children for more than 25 years. She is a grassroots worker and a counselor with Childline Ahmedabad. I hoped her to at least acknowledge my topic, but I was again disappointed, as she brushed away those three words “Child” “Sexual” “Abuse”, flatly declaring that no calls related to this problem have been received. She was however also reluctant to share (at least to share with a stranger) accounts of her experiences related to this issue through her career.

I also happened to meet a runaway child Rohit, 11 years of age picked up from the railway station. Rohit stepped out of his home swearing never to come back, one evening, when his father beat him mercilessly and demanded him to leave the house - the reason - Rohit came home late in the evening from a game of cricket. Rohit's family lives in Nagpur and hasn't seen Rohit for the past one year. Rohit has been working in Indore in a hotel for the past 7 months. His money stolen, and some reason I did not get from him, he left Indore on a train and was found on the platform at Kalupur railway station Ahmedabad.

Observation :

Mayaben and her colleague tactfully handle Rohit, allowing him to settle in the place, a new version of his story every hour, they are just too seasoned. Expert Mayaben will now take the required steps to trace Rohit's family and contact with Childline centre from Rohit's hometown Nagpur. There parents would be 'counseled' to treat the child with care and sensitivity. Salute to Childline for their monumental efforts for these little children.

Mayaben is however also hardened by her experiences and tends to treat every child as a case applying her years of experience to receive truth from him/her. But there is little hope in her to 'reform' these children from street life to family life.

(vii) Ms. Vidya – Tulir CPHCSA, Chennai 16th March 10

Tulir-CPHCSA (Centre for Prevention and Healing of Child Sexual Abuse), Chennai is a pioneering and proactive NGO, having a great body of work, research and resource development. Ms. Vidya, from Tulir, provided some pointers and tips, over a telephonic conversation most important of which was teaching children about 'touches'. Semantically, she said, always differentiate touches as "safe" and "unsafe" rather than "good" and ''bad". This approach focuses children on what they 'feel' emotionally, rather than leaving them to judge confusing moral standards of conduct. A truly innovative endeavour from Tulir is an audio-visual called "Tickles and Hugs" which through stories and rhymes educates children about protecting themselves from situations of abuse.

(viii) Dr. Sheetalkumar J. Shah , Ramapir No Tekro, 16th March 10

Salient Information: High incidence of Gutkha and Smoking at age of 12-13 years

(ix) Dr. Maitreya Parikh, Psychiatrist, Child Adolescent Psychiatry, Wednesday 17th March 10

Salient information: Emotional pattern of child following sexual abuse - short and long term effects

Scenario among urban child population in India

Difference in long term effects among male and female victims.

(x) Childrens observation home, Khanpur, Ahmedabad, Thursday 18th March 10

Observations: A street child habituated to street life had been brought to the centre, his hometown however being Rajkot. The boy is calmly listening to the two volunteers arguing over whether he be transferred to Rajkot centre, or should his parents be called here. He has grown up in different child care centres in West Bengal and Delhi. He is non attached to family and home. The boy is an intent listener and keen observer. His body language is composed and confident. Though he doesn't say a word, one can make out he is sharply following the discussion.

Smt. Manishaben R. Patel, Chairman, Child Welfare Committee, Ahmedabad, Gujarat

I happened to be part of an adoption taking place at the same time

Salient information: Cases of incest from age as young as 5 years, come into open after girl matures and understands

Sexual abuse among employed children, Domestic workers - both girls and boys

Reporting mostly in lower income groups, though incidents in middle and high income groups are suppressed

Adoption process and follow-up

(x) Dr. Niyati Lakhani, Paediatric Surgeon, Ahmedabad, Thursday 18th March 10

Salient Information:

Medical issues in case of rape of pre-pubertal child - Tear of anal wall - Treatment Colostomy - mark of this surgery on the abdomen can cause issues in marriage eligibility of a girl in later life.

Doctors perform their job in the hospital, but reports are modified for e.g. vaginal injury by fall on sharp object, as victim's testimony is either suppressed or it is too scared too speak.

Higher vulnerability of Mentally Retarded/ Developmentally Challenged children.

(xi) Dr. Amit Gupta, Paediatrician, Friday 19th March '10

Insights: Media can play a strong role in deterrance of CSA

(xii) Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Saturday 20th March '10

Sister Mangalaben, Gynecology ward:

Several incidences of under-5 rape victims, 2-3 cases per month

Medical report is prepared for police indicating nature & degree of abuse.

Victims mostly children of labourers, slum dwelling families.

Existing social awareness posters at the hospital

(xiii) Shahibaug Police Station, Ahmedabad, 20th March '10

Salient insight: "Main batata hoon, original balaatkar ka offense kaisa hota hai..."

- The P.I. of Shahibaug Police Station Mr. J.N. Panchal, seems to (or pretends to) imply that children of pre-pubertal age cannot be raped (talk of 'medical' 'reports'!).

Salient Information: High incidence of adolescent sexual experimentation, leading to Juveniles in Conflict with Crime (JCL).

No cases of male child rape reported.

Involvement of Medico Legal Issues, Medical Jurisprudence, FSR (Forensic Science Report)

Complete process to handle a Juvenile Sexual Crime case

(xiv) Arpan, Mumbai, 22nd March 2010

(xv) Dr. Haneef Lakdawala, Sanchetana, 24th March 10

(xvi) Dr. Malini Desai, Head of Gynecology, Civil Hospital Ahmedabad, 25th March, 10

(xvii) Gender Resource Centre, Ahmedabad, 25th March 10